Koihime Musou Girls and Related Korean Clans, Part XVI: Jang (장/張)
Jang (장/張), sometimes romanized Chang in McCune Script is a common Korean Surname which means 'stretch and expand' in Sino-Korean Language, similar to Zhang in Chinese. Zhang was listed 24th in the famous Song Dynasty's Hundred Family Surnames. Today, it is one of the most common surnames in the world and listed by the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System as the third-most-common surname in mainland China in April 2007, with 87.50 million bearers. A commonly cited but erroneous factoid in the 1990 Guinness Book of Records listed it as the world's most common surname, but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim.
As mentioned above, Zhang is the third-most-common surname in mainland China, making up 6.83% of the population of the People's Republic of China. On Taiwan, it is the fourth-most-common surname, making up 5.26% of the population of the Republic of China. In Korea, Jang is the ninth-most-common surname after Yoon (윤/尹), making 992,721 out of 49,705,663 Koreans based on 2015 Korean Republic Census.
Among the Chinese diaspora, the name remains common but takes on various romanizations. "Chong" is the 19th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans; "Chang" is the 6th-most-common surname among Chinese Americans; and "Zhang" was the 7th-most-common particularly Chinese surname (i.e., excluding ethnically diverse surnames such as "Lee") found in a 2010 survey of Ontario's Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients.
In a study by the National Institute of the Korean Language a.k.a Gugeowon (국립국어원/國立國語院) based on 2007 application data for South Korean passports, it was found that 84.5% of people with this surname spelled it in Latin letters as Jang in their passports. Another 14.9% spelled it as Chang in McCune format, and 0.2% as Zhang, similar to Chinese Pronunciation on that surname.
The traditional origin of the surname Zhang is rooted in Chinese legend. The fifth son of the Yellow Emperor, Qing Yangshi (青陽氏), had a son Hui (揮) who was inspired by the Heavenly Bow constellation (天弓星, Tiān Gōng Xīng) to invent the bow and arrow. Hui was then promoted to "First Bow" (弓正, Gōng Zhèng) and bestowed the surname 張, which – when broken into its constituent radicals – means "widening bow" or "archer".
Indong-Oksan Jang Clan (인동-옥산 장씨/仁同-玉山張氏), a clan which is originated from the Administrative Precinct of Indong-dong, Gumi City, Northern Gyeongsang Province is the largest among 62 designated clans of Jang Family, where this lineage consists of 681,825 people. There are six founders of Indong Jang Clan, which are Jang Geum-yong (장금용/張金用), Jang Kye (장계/張桂), Jang Kye-im (장계임/張繼任), Jang Soo-myung (장수명/張壽命), Jang Yeon-jwa (장연좌/張延佐) and Jang Yong-seo (장용서/張龍瑞). Jang Geum-yong was a military officer during the reign of King Munjong Wang Hwi, 11th King of Goryeo Dynasty. He was the descendant of Jang Jeong-pil (장정필/張貞弼), the progenitor of Andong Jang Clan, a clan which is originated from Andong City, Northern Gyeongsang Province.
13th Generation-Descendant of Jang Geum-yong, Jang Baek (장백/張伯) who lived during the reign of King Woo of Goryeo Dynasty, became the Lord of Oksan (옥산군/玉山君) and designated Oksan County as the ancestral seat of his clan. Oksan is an old name of the Administrative Precinct of Indong-dong. With the various founders of the Indong Jang Clan, this clan divides into 44 smaller branch clans.