Koihime Musou Girls and Related Korean Clans, Part VIII: Sohn (손/孫)
Son (손/孫), sometimes romanized Sohn is a common Korean Surname which means 'descendant' in Sino-Korean Language, similar to Sun in Chinese. The surname Sun (Chinese)/Son (Korea) is the 12th most common family name in contemporary China and 25th most common family name in Korean Peninsula. According to the historic record, the origin of the surname Sun can be traced back to Emperor Wen of the Zhou Dynasty, dating back more than 3,000 years.
The origin of the surname Sun is generally believed to have three sources. One story is that the grandson of Huisun, offspring of Emperor Wen, adopted the surname Sun to commemorate his grandfather. Another story is that the surname Sun originated from a later generation of Sun Shu'ao. The last and most important story is that surname Sun stems from the descendants of Tian Wan. When Tian escaped to the state of Qi from the state of Chen, Emperer Huan of the state of Qi was about to designate him as minister for his noble mind. However, Tian did not seek fame and personal gain, and only asked for a petty post that took charge of all sorts of workmen. The descendants of Tian distinguished themselves many times in battles, and Emperor Jin of the state of Qin conferred the surname Sun to them. Of all the three sources mentioned above, the last one is the most popular now.
Since the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period), people with the surname Sun have had several large-scale migrations from north to south and even the trans-sea-area and trans-state migrations. The historic record shows that Sun Linfu and his son Sun Jia, a later generation of Wei Kangshu, were defeated by Nin Xi, their political opponent. Later Sun and his son moved separately to Weihui in central China's Henan province, forming the first separate move of the Sun family. From then on, descendants of the Sun family moved southward in the late Eastern Zhou Dynasty twice. At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qin Dynasty, many coastal residences went to Taiwan Island to make a living.
Back in Korea, the foundation of Son Clan in Korea traced since the beginning years of Silla Period (King Hyeokgeose-Geoseogan's Reign) where one of six Sillan Chieftains is the forefather of Son Clan, known as Guryema (구례마/俱禮馬 or 仇禮馬). He was a chieftain of the hamlet, known as Musandaesuchon (무산대수촌/茂山大樹村). During the reign of King Yuri-Isageum - 3rd King of Silla (Reigned: 24CE - 57CE), All of six chieftains' descendants granted their own new surnames where the descendants of Guryema granted the surname of Son (손/孫).
At the last count, there are 457,303 people who bear the surname of Son, based on the 2015 Korean Republic Census - provided by Statistics Korea (통계청/統計廳/Tonggyecheong/KOSTAT). There are nine designated clans (본관/本貫) for this clan which are:
- Gyeongju Son Clan (경주 손씨/慶州孫氏), also known as Wolseong Son Clan (월성 손씨/月城孫氏) = Originated from Gyeongju City, Northern Gyeongsang Province, ROK
- Gurye Son Clan (구례 손씨/求禮孫氏) = Originated from Gurye County, Southern Jeolla Province, ROK
- Naju Son Clan (니주 손씨/羅州孫氏) = Originated from Naju City, Southern Jeolla Province, ROK
- Miryang Son Clan (밀양 손씨/密陽孫氏), also known as Milseong Son Clan (밀성 손씨/密城孫氏) = Originated from Miryang City, Southern Gyeongsang Province, ROK
- Buryeong Son Clan (부령 손씨/扶寧孫氏) = Originated from Buryeong County, Northern Hamgyong Province, DPRK
- Biin Son Clan (비인 손씨/庇仁孫氏) = Originated from Biin-myeon, Seocheon County, Southern Chungcheong Province, ROK
- Andong Son Clan (안동 손씨/安東孫氏), also known as Iljik Son Clan (일직 손씨/一直孫氏) = Originated from Iljik-myeon, Andong City, Northern Gyeongsang Province, ROK
- Cheongju Son Clan (청주 손씨/淸州孫氏) = Originated from Unified Cheongju City, Northern Chungcheong Province, ROK
- Pyeonghae Son Clan (평해 손씨/平海孫氏) = Originated from Pyeonghae-myeon, Uljin County, Northern Gyeongsang Province, ROK
The Miryang-Milseong Lineage is the largest among nine, where this lineage consists of 306,895 people. Miryang-Milseong Son Clan was founded by Son Soon (손순/孫順) - Lord of Wolseong (월성군/月城君) who lived during the reign of King Heungdeok Kim Gyeong-hwi, 42nd Monarch of Silla and 13th King of the Unified Silla Dynasty. Coincidentally, he is the founder of Gyeongju and Pyeonghae Son Clans. Son Ik-gam (손익감/孫翼甘) - Lord of Eungcheon (응천군/凝川君), the first son of Son Soon designated Milseong County in the present-day Miryang City, Southern Gyeongsang Province - the home of Miryang Arirang as their ancestral seat.